future: Easy, safe support for Python 2/3 compatibility
``future`` is the missing compatibility layer between Python 2 and Python
3. It allows you to use a single, clean Python 3.x-compatible codebase to
support both Python 2 and Python 3 with minimal overhead.
It is designed to be used as follows::
from __future__ import (absolute_import, division,
from builtins import (
bytes, dict, int, list, object, range, str,
ascii, chr, hex, input, next, oct, open,
pow, round, super,
filter, map, zip)
followed by predominantly standard, idiomatic Python 3 code that then runs
similarly on Python 2.6/2.7 and Python 3.3+.
The imports have no effect on Python 3. On Python 2, they shadow the
corresponding builtins, which normally have different semantics on Python 3
versus 2, to provide their Python 3 semantics.
Standard library reorganization
``future`` supports the standard library reorganization (PEP 3108) through
following Py3 interfaces:
>>> # Top-level packages with Py3 names provided on Py2:
>>> import html.parser
>>> import queue
>>> import tkinter.dialog
>>> import xmlrpc.client
>>> # etc.
>>> # Aliases provided for extensions to existing Py2 module names:
>>> from future.standard_library import install_aliases
>>> from collections import Counter, OrderedDict # backported to
>>> from collections import UserDict, UserList, UserString
>>> import urllib.request
>>> from itertools import filterfalse, zip_longest
>>> from subprocess import getoutput, getstatusoutput
An included script called `futurize
`_ aids in converting
code (from either Python 2 or Python 3) to code compatible with both
platforms. It is similar to ``python-modernize`` but goes further in
providing Python 3 compatibility through the use of the backported types
and builtin functions in ``future``.
:Author: Ed Schofield
:Sponsor: Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia, and Python Charmers Pte
Ltd, Singapore. http://pythoncharmers.com
:Others: See docs/credits.rst or http://python-future.org/credits.html
Copyright 2013-2018 Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia.
The software is distributed under an MIT licence. See LICENSE.txt.